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Technology and New Technology Developed Updates

Flex Plant in Lodi, CA*

*Video courtesy of Siemens Energy


Environmental Energy & Finance Corporation (EEFC) is a Developer/Owner of Renewable Energy Projects. Along with its partners, EEFC provides expert solutions in mini hydro electric, wind, solar, Waste to Energy (WTE) and Waste to Fuel for power generation and electrical transmission and distribution Systems.


  • FlexEfficiency* 50 Combined Cycle Power Plant

Technology-Flex Efficiency Power Plant
$170 million gas turbine validation facility – Greenville, South Carolina

Key Features
*Operational Flexibility

  • 60% efficiency down to 87 percent load
  • Greater than 50 MW/minute while maintaining emissions guarantees
  • 40 percent turndown within emissions guarantees
  • One button push start in under 30 minutes
  • High start reliability with simplified digital controls
  • Plant-level flexibility and maintainability
  • Two-year construction schedule
  • More than 61 percent Baseload efficiency
  • Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) greater than 70%

*Total Plant Design
*Leading Baseload Efficiency
*Full-Load Validation

  • Full-speed, full-load, dual-fuel capability
  • Variable speed, variable load – not grid connected
  • Reduced fuel burn – 6.4Mm3 natural gas per year
  • Smaller carbon footprint – 12,700 metric tons of CO2 per year
  • Reduced NOx emissions – 10 metric tons of NOx per year
  • rrent GE technologies

*Ecomagination Certified (compared to prior technologies)
*Low Life-Cycle Costs

    GE has developed the new FlexEfficiency* 50 Combined Cycle Power Plant, a product of Ecomagination, to respond to the current and evolving energy production needs of the world. Developed from GE’s proven F-class legacy, this new single-shaft platform is an innovative total plant design that defines a new standard for high efficiency and operational flexibility.
Technology-Flex Efficiency Power Plant

*Plant Overview
The latest evolution of the FlexEfficiency 50 Combined Cycle Power Plant uses an integrated approach to reduce fuel costs, create additional revenue sources, improve dispatch capability and reduce carbon emissions compared to prior technologies. With new gas turbine, steam turbine, and generator components—along with digital control capabilities, power island integration, and a turnkey plant design—the new 510 MW block-size plant features an expected Baseload efficiency of more than 61 percent.

Technology-Flex Efficiency Power Plant

*Trademark of the General Electric Company

  • Pyrolyzer/KUG Gasifier
      The Gasifier can use coal, sewer sludge, biomass, wood chips, MSW / RDF, and other waste materials and produce electricity, liquid fuels of natural gas, diesel, jet-fuel and other.

The Gasifier has zero emissions because it uses a closed-loop process and will use the exhaust smoke of the generator to pre-heat the Gasifier feedstock on the front-end.

Currently EEFC has 3-5 WTE Projects in final documentation to submit to financing for project funding of 100% debt funding over 20 years of low interest rate of 4-6%.

Gasifier connected to Turbines making electricity

The WTE projects in South Korea average 1400 tons of MSW (Municipality Solid Waste) to convert to RDF (Refuse derived fuel) and receives $40-$60 USD for tipping fees and $.17 cents kW for electricity and the WTE Plant will produce 60MW of electricity based on plant specifications.

EEFC receives funding due to the fact that our off-taker qualifies as our guarantee to pay-off the debt over a 20+ year agreement and our EPC Contractor qualifies as one other way to provide a guarantee.

  • Cogeneration
      Cogeneration equipment produces power and thermal energy from a common fuel source, generally one that is considered to be a waste product from another process. Topping cogeneration systems generate electricity and use the exhaust for heating. Bottoming cogeneration systems produce heat for industrial processes and use a recovery boiler to generate electricity. Cogenerators and combined heat and power systems (CHP) are used by municipalities, hospitals, universities, oil refineries, paper mills, and wastewater treatment plants. Some CHP equipment uses coal, hydrogen, biomass, natural gas, or solar energy as a primary fuel. Other CHP systems use diesel fuel, digester gas, kerosene, naptha, methanol, ethanol, alcohol, flare gas, or landfill gases. Specifications for cogeneration equipment includes size, installed cost, electrical efficiency, overall efficiency, footprint, emissions, and fuels. Site location, interconnection requirements, unit size, and configuration affect the total cost of a cogeneration system.

Cogeneration equipment includes prime movers such as reciprocating engines, combustion turbines, micro-turbines, backpressure steam turbines and fuel cells. Gas-fired reciprocating engines are used in buildings to achieve energy-efficiency levels approaching 80%. When run on biofuels such as methane, they emit low levels of greenhouse gases and can produce 5 kW to 7 MW of power. Combustion turbines generate electricity from the heat produced by steam, hot water, or thermally-activated equipment such as absorption chillers. This category of cogeneration equipment can produce between 500 kW and 25 MW of electricity. Micro-turbines or microturbines are modular products that can run on waste fuels such as landfill gases. They incorporate advanced materials such as thermal barrier coatings and can produce from 25 kW to 500 kW of electricity. Backpressure steam turbines and fuel cells are also commonly available. A fuel cell uses hydrogen, which is typically isolated from a hydrocarbon source such as natural gas, propane, methanol, or gasoline.

Some cogeneration equipment uses thermally-activated technologies for cooling and dehumidification applications. Examples include heat recovery units (HRU), absorption chillers, and desiccant dehumidifiers. Absorption chillers transfer recovered heat from a prime mover to a heat sink through an absorbent fluid and a refrigerant. To provide cooling, the chiller absorbs and releases water vapor into and out of a lithium bromide solution. Desiccant dehumidifiers use drying agents to remove water from air used to condition a building space. Desiccant materials such as silica gel, activated alumina, and lithium chloride salt are exposed to an air stream with relatively high humidity. Cogeneration equipment such as packaged CHP systems and heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) are also available.


Technology Gallery

      IGCC technology uses solid and/or liquid fuels – typically coal, petroleum coke, petroleum residuum, biomass, or a blend of these fuels – in a power plant that leverages the environmental benefits and thermal performance of a gas-fired combined cycle. In an IGCC gasifier, a solid or liquid feed is partially oxidized with air or high-purity oxygen. The resulting hot, raw “syngas” – an abbreviation for synthesis gas – consisting of carbon monoxide (CO), CO2, hydrogen gas (H2), water, methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other sulfur compounds, nitrogen gas( N2), and argon (Ar). After it is cooled and cleaned of particulate matter and sulfur species, the syngas is fired in a combustion turbine (CT). The hot exhaust from the gas turbine passes to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) where it produces steam that drives a steam turbine. The use of a gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle helps gasification-based power systems achieve competitive power generation efficiencies, despite energy losses during fuel conversion, in the gasification system, and in the air separation unit (ASU) in oxygen-blown systems. In a typical IGCC unit, about 60% of the net power output is generated by the gas turbine(s) and about 40% by the steam turbine.

State-of-the-art IGCC configurations for bituminous coal are expected to achieve overall thermal efficiencies in the range of 8,300-9,000Btu/kWh — comparable to supercritical PC units. By removing the pollution-forming constituents from the pressurized syngas prior to combustion in the power block, IGCC plants can meet extremely stringent air emission standards. Worldwide there are five coal-based and nine heavy oil-based IGCC plants in operation. In the U.S. there are two coal-based plants in operation, two under construction and two others in advanced development.

China has two coal-based IGCC plants under construction and several other IGCC plants are being developed worldwide. An advantage of gasification-based energy systems (i.e. IGCC) relative to pulverized coal combustion is that the CO2 produced by the process is in a concentrated, high-pressure gas stream where the partial pressure of CO2 is much higher than that in flue gas from SCPC plants. This higher pressure makes it easier and less expensive to separate and capture CO2. Once the CO2 is captured, it can be compressed and sequestered (prevented from escaping to the atmosphere). CO2 capture from gasification plants is currently commercially practiced in the U.S. and worldwide.

The IGCC technology is able to achieve lower pollution emissions because the pollutant constituents formed in gasification can be removed prior to combustion in the gas turbine and under high pressures. Sulfur impurities in the feedstock are converted to hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide, which are removed from the syngas to ultimately produce either elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid. NOx is not formed in the oxygen-deficient gasifier. Rather, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are created by nitrogen-hydrogen reactions. The hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, and particulate matter are removed from the syngas prior to combustion. Mercury speciation in IGCC has yet to be completely characterized. However, at the Eastman coal gasification plant, the use of sulfur impregnated activated carbon beds in the syngas stream at ambient temperatures prior to the sulfur removal process captures 90 – 95% of the mercury. Compared with coal, biomass feedstocks have lower levels of sulfur, sulfur compounds, and mercury, and demonstrations have shown that biomass co-firing with coal can also lead to lower nitrogen oxide emissions. Perhaps the most significant environmental benefit of biomass, however, is a potential reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Though biomass may not be a carbon neutral fuel, it is generally agreed that it is greenhouse gas “beneficial”, offsetting a large portion of CO2 emissions compared to coal combustion. Taking into account biomass production, hauling, processing, fertilizer manufacture, feedstock conversion, and byproduct credits for greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration, recent EPRI evaluations estimate that bioelectricity can offset 92-99% of greenhouse gas emissions (including CO2, methane, and other greenhouse gases) for a range of biomass feedstocks when compared to coal production and combustion without carbon capture and sequestration.

*For this Study, biomass CO2 emissions are shown as zero metric tons/MWh, representing the zero net CO2 emissions assumption.

  • Hydropower
      There are three types of hydropower facilities: impoundment, diversion, and pumped storage. Some hydropower plants use dams and some do not. The images below show both types of hydropower plants.

Many dams were built for other purposes and hydropower was added later. In the United States, there are about 80,000 dams of which only 2,400 produce power. The other dams are for recreation, stock/farm ponds, flood control, water supply, and irrigation.

Hydropower plants range in size from small systems for a home or village to large projects producing electricity for utilities. The sizes of hydropower plants are described below.

  • Impoundment
      The most common type of hydroelectric power plant is an impoundment facility. An impoundment facility, typically a large hydropower system, uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. The water may be released either to meet changing electricity needs or to maintain a constant reservoir level.

A diversion, sometimes called run-of-river, facility channels a portion of a river through a canal or penstock. It may not require the use of a dam.

Pumped Storage
When the demand for electricity is low, a pumped storage facility stores energy by pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high electrical demand, the water is released back to the lower reservoir to generate electricity.

Sizes of Hydroelectric Power Plants
Facilities range in size from large power plants that supply many consumers with electricity to small and micro plants that individuals operate for their own energy needs or to sell power to utilities.

Large Hydropower
Although definitions vary, DOE defines large hydropower as facilities that have a capacity of more than 30 megawatts.
Small Hydropower
Although definitions vary, DOE defines small hydropower as facilities that have a capacity of 100 kilowatts to 30 megawatts.
Micro Hydropower
A micro hydropower plant has a capacity of up to 100 kilowatts. A small or micro-hydroelectric power system can produce enough electricity for a home, farm, ranch, or village.


Renewable Energy and the Energy Transistion*

*Courtesy of We are Edeos

Process of Pyrolysis*

*Courtesy of Biofuels Edu

Gasification: The Waste-to-Energy Solution*

*Courtesy of The Gasification Council